Dr Nowakowski presents at Humboldt University, Berlin

On 15 May Paweł Nowakowski gave a talk at the Faculty of Theology of the Humboldt University in Berlin, at a seminar meeting of the project ‘Inscriptiones Christianae Graecae’ supervised by Cilliers Breytenbach and Klaus Hallof, and sponsored by the Excellence Cluster 264 TOPOI. Paweł presented a collection of epitaphs from three villages (modern Beyözü, Elmapınar, and Kozören) in the immediate area of ancient Euchaita in Pontus, the principal sanctuary of Saint Theodore, which he is now publishing with permission of the Euchaita/Avkat Project directed by John Haldon (Princeton University, NJ) and Hugh Elton (Trent University, Canada). The collection throws new light on the clergy, monks, and pilgrims active in the area of provincial sanctuaries of saints, and supplements a collection of inscriptions from Beyözü published  by Mustafa Adak and Christian Marek in 2016.

For the project ‘Inscriptiones Christianae Graecae’, see http://www.epigraph.topoi.org/

For the Euchaita/Avkat Project, see https://history.princeton.edu/centers-programs/center-collaborative-history/special-projects/avkat/introduction

Description of the image: Epitaph for the deaconess Theodora, who ‘sought refuge at the receiver of strangers (xenodochos), the great martyr of Christ’, Saint Theodore. Found at Çorum near Euchaita and first published by Adak and Marek in 2016 (no. 99) = our database no. CoSe02652.

Talking in Warsaw and Kraków about the Cult of Saints

Bryan Ward-Perkins writes: At the end of May I gave papers in Poland about our project, in Warsaw and in Kraków.  Warsaw is a research hub for the ‘Cult of Saints in Late Antiquity’, where our extensive Latin evidence is being worked on by Matthieu Pignot, helped by Marta Szada and Kasia Wojtalik, all under the direction of Robert Wiśniewski; it is also the home town of our epigraphist, Paweł Nowakowski.  So I was more or less guaranteed a friendly reception there; but I was nonetheless pleasantly surprised to be greeted by a seminar table loaded with strawberries (it is apparently a very happy tradition to serve fruit and biscuits at the Warsaw seminar).  Kraków didn’t rise to strawberries, but it did provide an equally interesting and appreciative audience, and is a fascinating city for the study of saints, if of a slightly later period: high points being the shrine of St Stanisław in Wawel cathedral, and Veit Stoss’ amazing altarpiece of the Dormition of the Virgin in the church of St Mary.

I talked to the title ‘Levels of sainthood and of cult in the Cult of Saints in Late Antiquity project’, exploring the implicit (and sometimes) explicit hierarchy of the saints in Heaven, and the different levels of cult they attracted on earth (which did not necessarily tally with their heavenly importance).  It was a very general paper, aimed primarily at showcasing the huge richness and diversity of our evidence, and the value of our database – which we have decided to launch (before completion) on 1st November (All Saints Day) this year!

Late antique Greek inscriptions in Athens

Research Associates Paweł Nowakowski and Efthymis Rizos spent the week 26th February – 4th March in Athens. The aim of this research journey was the examination of a database of late antique Greek inscriptions, maintained at the Faculty of History and Archaeology of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. The ‘Saints’ were hosted there by Professor Katerina Nikolaou.

The Athenian database comprises more than 120,000 records ranging from the 4th c. to the modern period, and covers all the epigraphic editorial series up to the early 1990s. It originated as a set of paper files (which we were also allowed to examine), later converted to FileMaker format. It allowed us to get a number of entries for mainland Greece and the Balkans, as well as proved the completion of our evidence from already processed regions.

Another task was the examination of Egyptian clay lamps from the Benaki Musuem with the kind assistance of Anastasia Drandaki. This collection owes its unique appearance to the fact that most of the lamps are inscribed with names of saints, many of them of Anatolian hagiographic background and bearing very sophisticated, rare names. It is a real mystery how those obscure figures found their way to the Egyptian countryside. Perhaps the efforts of Paweł and Efthymis will let us solve this puzzle.

Vacancy announcement: post-doctoral researcher (Latin evidence) at the University of Warsaw

The Institute of History, University of Warsaw, is seeking to recruit a post-doctoral researcher  for a position in the project The Cult of Saints: a Christendom-wide study of its origins, spread and development. The successful candidate will work as part of a team of seven post-doctoral researchers reporting to the Principal Investigator, Prof. Bryan Ward-Perkins (University of Oxford), but under direct supervision of Dr hab. Robert Wiśniewski  (University of Warsaw). The postholder will have responsibility for collecting and researching Latin evidence consisting mostly of literary texts, inscriptions and calendars. The postholder is also expected to produce sole-authored articles on aspects of the cult of saints in the West.

Full information about the vacancy and how to apply can be found here: Call for candidates

Field Trip to Rome

Bryan Ward-Perkins writes: In September last year six members of the Cult of Saints project teamed up with three members of the Warsaw-based ‘Presbyters’ project, and went on an intensive five-day visit to Rome. The purpose of this visit was to familiarise ourselves with the physical evidence for the early cult of saints, and there is nowhere better to do this than Rome, with its quite extraordinary collection of catacombs, excavated cemeteries, early churches, inscriptions,and mosaic and fresco depictions of the saints, all supplemented with rich contemporary documentary evidence and unique levels of modern scholarly engagement.

  In the course of our five days we covered huge distances on foot (since this is the best way of forming an impression of the city’s topography, pre-Christian and Christian), and visited most of the highlights of early Christian Rome, including the excavations under St Peter’s and some twenty churches.  I had the good fortune to be born and brought up in Rome, and therefore had some familiarity with almost everything we saw – but seeing these monuments in an group was deeply enlightening, since, at every site, at least one of our number was guaranteed to know something I didn’t.  For instance, in S. Maria Maggiore I learned more about the fifth-century nave mosaics (and some fairly obscure passages in Genesis) than I had ever dreamed was to be known!

The high points of our fieldtrip were definitely: our visit to the newly reopened S. Maria Antiqua on the Forum (which coincided with an excellent exhibition about its early medieval frescoes and their context); a private tour of the catacombs of Domitilla, Calixtus and S. Sebastiano, accompanied by two great experts on these, Antonio Felle and Donatella Nuzzo; and a visit to the Congregatio pro Causis Sanctorum, the present-day Vatican office where the cases for possible new saints are carefully scrutinised.  Here Father Zdzisław Kijas OFMConv, who works for the Congregatio, took us very thoroughly and patiently through the modern process of vetting an application.  There are of course huge differences between the careful legalistic procedures of the modern Vatican, that have slowly evolved since the twelfth century, and the very informal processes of early centuries, that are our area of study.  But some central things have remained unchanged, such as the Church’s concern over unregulated cult, and the need for miracles to prove that a saint has intercessionary power.

We left Rome, as we had hoped, with a good understanding of the city’s remarkable physical evidence for saintly cult – cult that had built a string of impressive churches over the graves of the martyrs, including the massive basilicas of Old St Peter’s and St Paul’s, and had created the stunning mosaics of SS Cosma e Damiano and S. Agnese fuori-le-mura.  But, more than knowledge of a single city (important though that city is), we took away from Rome a much better understanding of how to read and interpret similar physical evidence from the same period across the rest of Christendom.

The Cult of Saints in Mainz and Heidelberg


Bryan Ward-Perkins writes: ‘In November I visited Mainz and Heidelberg to give general introductory talks about our project at the two universities’ Ancient History seminars.  Such talks are largely given to spread the word that a big project is underway, and to explain how we are setting about collecting and tagging the evidence from all six languages of early Christianity and across all types of evidence – from passing references to shrines in papyrus documents to full-blown Lives of saints, by way of dedicatory inscriptions, martyrologies, homilies, etc.  But it is also very useful to address different audiences from different scholarly traditions, to see how we need to refine our own approaches, or, at the very least, justify the limitations on our project that the pressures of time dictate.  In producing a searchable corpus of all the available evidence up to c.700 AD (or at least of as much of it as possible), we are inevitably having to cut some corners, since completeness in this context is more important than perfection – but, at the same time, these corners need to be cut in a suitably scholarly way!  There is no better way of refining our thinking on how to do this than to talk to as many established scholars, students, and members of the wider public as possible.’

The Cult of Saints in the First Millennium seminar series

Time: Friday 5.00 – 7.00 pm

Venue: Trinity College (Sutro Room), University of Oxford

Convenor: Efthymios Rizos

Week 1 (28 April)
Conrad Leyser (Worcester College)
Through the Eyes of Two Deacons: Church Property, Clerical Office, and the Cults of Stephen and Laurence in Fifth-Century Rome

Week 3 (12 May)
Gesa Schenke (Oxford)
Invoking Martyrs for Justice, Expecting Healing through Saints: a Glimpse into the Early Realities of Cult through Greek and Coptic Documentary Evidence

Week 5 (26 May)
Aude Busine (Brussels)
Saints Basil and Basilissa at Ancyra

Week 7 (9 June)
Leslie Brubaker (Birmingham)
Mary at Daphni